What if the Saturn IB had kept flying?

 

saturn application single stage to orbit

Mar 20,  · He calculated that given its performance versus weight this stage was practically capable of placing a modest payload in orbit on it’s own. This realisation led to a study for a Saturn Application Single Stage To Orbit (SASSTO) vehicle. By modifying the stage to use his favoured aerospike design – in this case a single large nozzle. A significant part of Bono's work focused on the Saturn upper stage, the SIVB, manufactured by his employer, McDonnell-Douglas (MDAC). He first considered reuse of the SIVB in its Saturn configuration [Ref. 10], but finally refined the idea into a small VTOL SSTO named SASSTO (Saturn Application Single-Stage-To-Orbit) [Ref 11]. Douglas Aircraft's SASSTO, short for "Saturn Application Single Stage to Orbit", was a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch system designed by Philip Bono's team in SASSTO was a study in minimalist designs, a launcher with the specific intent of repeatedly placing a Gemini capsule in orbit for the lowest possible cost. The SASSTO booster was based on the layout of the S-IVB upper.


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Status : Study Saturn application single stage to orbit : 2, kg 6, lb. Thrust : 1, Gross mass : 97, kglb. Height : Diameter : 6. Apogee : km mi. Consequently, Douglas had to define a small VTVL SSTO manned "space taxi" to demonstrate the key elements of the concept aerospike engine, lightweight structures, ballistic re-entry, vertical landing, actively cooled heatshield etc.

Notable design features included an aft-mounted liquid oxygen tank to reduce the difference between vehicle center of gravity and center of aerodynamic pressure, and a hydrogen cooling system for the main engine to provide thermal protection during re-entry. Thermal analysis indicated that although the engine itself would be adequately protected by this system, the areas located above the exhaust nozzles would not.

Consequently, the designers had to resort to an ablative, expendable material kilograms of Armstrong Insulcork bonded to the aluminum structure although it would increase the maintenance cost. The segment plug nozzle propulsion system would have operated at a pressure of psia. It would be used for ascent, orbit insertion, de-orbit and beginning at an altitude of meters- the final landing burn.

The vehicle would carry enough propellant for hovering for 10 seconds before landing at an unprepared site, if necessary.

SASSTO had a payload capability of 3,kg to a km orbit and the standard payload would be a 2-man Gemini spacecraft protected by a jettisonable fairing to reduce drag losses during ascent. This would provide a safe emergency escape system for the test pilots, and the Gemini ejection seats, heatshield, parachutes etc.

Douglas envisioned this vehicle as a "space fighter" capable of satellite inspection missions, or space station resupply flights lasting a maximum of 48 hours. It could also deliver 2,kg of liquid hydrogen saturn application single stage to orbit a spacecraft in Earth orbit. Consequently, the Saturn V's payload capability would have been boosted by t as well, saturn application single stage to orbit.

The Saturn IB's basic kilogram payload capability to a km orbit would have increased to kg depending on whether SASSTO would be flown in expendable or reusable mode. All three vehicles were designed for a 2,kilogram payload although the lifting-body TSTO only was able to carry 2,kg due to center of gravity problems. No attempt was made to estimate the marginal launch cost since there were too many unknown factors.

The winged and lifting-body 1st unit production costs would be 4 and 2. The general conclusion was that the complex winged or lifting-body TSTO shapes result in added lift-off and manufactured weights of a more expensive construction than ballistic wingless SSTOs.

The gross lift-off weights bear the relationships of 1. In that case, is the combination of lower re-entry g-loads, better maneuverability landing go-around with jet engines and improved cross range really worth the cost of carrying wings? Although TSTO thus appears to be uncompetitive vs.

LEO Payload: 2, kg 6, lb to a km orbit at Gross Mass : 97, kglb. Empty Mass : 6, kg 14, lb. Thrust vac : 1, Isp : sec. Burn time : sec. Isp sl : sec, saturn application single stage to orbit.

Span : 6. Length : No Engines : 1. Family : orbital launch vehicleSSTO. Country : USA. Agency : Douglas. Bibliography : 36

 

Douglas SASSTO - Wikipedia

 

saturn application single stage to orbit

 

The resulting vehicle became known as "Saturn Application Single Stage to Orbit". Notable design features included an aft-mounted liquid oxygen tank to reduce the difference between vehicle center of gravity & center of aerodynamic pressure, and a hydrogen cooling system for the main engine to provide thermal protection during reentry. Nov 17,  · What if the Saturn IB had kept flying? Follow @NASASpaceFlight. Home; Forums; L2 Sign Up The McDonnell-Douglas 'Saturn Applications Single Stage To Orbit' which was basically Phil Bono's study of a plug-nozzle S-IVB capable of propulsive landings while carrying (in one famous illustration) a complete Gemini spacecraft to orbit and back. Saturn Application Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SASSTO) combined launch vehicle and spacecraft. Only 19 meters tall, a single plug-nozzle engine would serve both at launch and for soft-landing back on Terra after an orbital mission. The craft — seen here with a Gemini two-man capsule — would be recovered intact and could be used repeatedly.